A unifying framework for thinking about processes — or sequences of tasks and activities — that provides an integrated, dynamic picture of organizations and managerial behavior. Many modern organizations are functional and hierarchical; they suffer from isolated departments, poor coordination, and limited lateral communication. All too often, work is fragmented and compartmentalized, and managers find it difficult to get things done. Scholars have faced similar problems in their research, struggling to describe organizational functioning in other than static, highly aggregated terms.
Some of the major functional areas of management are as follows: It is also called operational management or functional areas of management. As being management, a social and universal process, its area is very wider. Inter disciplinary approach of management widens the functional areas.
There are five main functional areas of management viz.
In time management, the emphasis is given on achieving the target in minimum time. By the nature, only one thing time is allotted equally to every creature as 24 hours in a day. But the person, who knows the art of time management, ranks first.
Japanese time management is regarded best in the world. In environment management, the efforts are made to check the different types of industrial pollution viz. It is the responsibility of general manager to plan for congenial ecology to plant, animal and human being.
Transport management is the specialized branch for arranging efficient and cheaper transport facility. In the age of multinational corporations MNCsthe primary concern of international management is with the management of people, material and money of the international environment.
It is the extension of simple management process itself, but across national frontiers. A manager while dealing with different nations must take into account the legal, political, social, economic and technical aspects in the global perspective. Forex foreign exchange management is the application of management principles for earning more and more foreign money.
Human resource development or personnel management or manpower management is concerned with obtaining and maintaining of a satisfactory and satisfied work force i. The recruitment, placement, induction, orientation, training, promotion, motivation, performance appraisal, wage and salary, retirement, transfer, merit-rating, industrial relations, working conditions, trade unions, safety and welfare schemes of employees are included in personnel management.
The object of personnel management is to create and promote team spirit among workers and managers. Production management refers to planning, organization, direction, coordination and control of the production function in such a way that desired goods and services could be produced at the right time, in right quantity, and at the right cost.
Some authors treat material, purchase and inventory management as part of production management. Production management involves the following functions: Financial management can be looked upon as the study of relationship between the raising of funds and the deployment of funds.
The subject matter of financial management is: Financial management involves mainly three decisions pertaining to: It dictates the process associated with capital budgeting and expenditures.
All proposals to spend money are ranked and investment decisions are taken whether to sanction money for these proposed ventures or not.Research in manpower planning is, therefore, more vital than in any other functional area because of the greater importance of the human element in the enterprise.
Broad areas for research in manpower planning include the following: i. Personnel policies ii. Personnel organisation structure. iii. describes a firm that prioritizes decision making an a way that emphasizes technical superiority in the product.
and integrates all staff level research activities into one effort. the director plans executes and controls the firms marketing research function employee teams composed of individuals fom various functional areas such as.
IMPORTANCE OF QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES IN MANAGERIAL DECISIONS functional areas of Management are discussed in this paper. Introduction: various names like- Business Mathematics, Business Statistics, Operations Research, Decision Science and Management Science.
All are concerned with rational approaches to decision making based on the. The roles of managers in functional areas Introduction According to Robbins and Coulter study (), the management concept can be defined as an and decision making process (managing the.
As operations management continues to develop, it will increasingly interact with other functional areas within the organization to develop integrated answers to complex interdisciplinary problems.
Cross-Functional Alignment in Supply Chain Planning: A Case Study of Sales and Operations Planning characteristics with distinctions made in decision making and information-processing theories (Daft and Lengel, ; Galbraith, ; MacKenzie, ; Simon and Newell, ).
Most operations management research on .