Section 2 4 The Greeks in Egypt. Introduction The direct influence of Ancient Egyptian literature on Archaic Greece has never been fully acknowledged.
Prehistory[ edit ] Neolithic tools found in Bhutan indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least 11, years. Origins and early settlement, —[ edit ] A state of Lhomon literally, southern darkness or Monyul dark land, a reference to the Monpa one of the Tibeto-Burman people of Bhutanpossibly a part of Tibet that was then beyond the pale of Buddhist teachings.
Monyul is thought to have existed between AD and AD The names Lhomon Tsendenjong southern Mon sandalwood country and Lhomon Khashi southern Mon country of four approachesfound in ancient Bhutanese and Tibetan chronicles, may also have credence and have been used by some Bhutanese scholars when referring to their homeland.
Variations of the Sanskrit words Bhota-ant end of Bhot or Bhu-uttan meaning highlands have been suggested by historians as origins of the name Bhutan, which came into common foreign use in the late 19th century and is used in Bhutan only in English-language official correspondence.
The traditional name of the country since the 17th century has been Drukyul —country of the Drukpathe Dragon people, or the Land of the Thunder Dragon, a reference to the country's dominant Buddhist sect.
The people of Monyul practiced a shamanistic religion, which emphasized worship of nature and the existence of good and evil spirits. During the latter part of this period, historical legends relate that the mighty king of Monyul invaded a southern region known as the Duars, subduing the regions of modern AssamWest Bengaland Bihar in India.
Instead, Buddhism absorbed Bon and its believers. As the country developed in its many fertile valleys, Buddhism matured and became a unifying element. It was Buddhist literature and chronicles that began the recorded history of Bhutan.
After reportedly subduing eight classes of demons and converting the king, Guru Rimpoche moved on to Tibet.
Upon his return from Tibet, he oversaw the construction of new monasteries in the Paro Valley and set up his headquarters in Bumthang. According to tradition, he founded the Nyingmapa sect—also known as the "old sect" or Red Hat sect—of Mahayana Buddhismwhich became for a time the dominant religion of Bhutan.
Guru Rimpoche plays a great historical and religious role as the national patron saint who revealed the tantras —manuals describing forms of devotion to natural energy—to Bhutan. Following the guru's sojourn, Indian influence played a temporary role until increasing Tibetan migrations brought new cultural and religious contributions.
Instead, small independent monarchies began to develop by the early 9th century. Each was ruled by a deb kingsome of whom claimed divine origins. The kingdom of Bumthang was the most prominent among these small entities.
At the same time, Tibetan Buddhist monks lam in DzongkhaBhutan's official national language had firmly rooted their religion and culture in Bhutan, and members of joint Tibetan-Mongol military expeditions settled in fertile valleys.
By the 11th century, all of Bhutan was occupied by Tibetan-Mongol military forces.
Following a period in which Buddhism was in decline in Tibet in the 11th century, contention among a number of subsects emerged. The Mongol overlords of Tibet and Bhutan patronized a sequence of subsects until their own political decline in the 14th century. By that time, the Gelugpa or Yellow Hat school had, after a period of anarchy in Tibet, become a powerful force resulting in the flight to Bhutan of numerous monks of various minor opposing sects.
Among these monks was the founder of the Lhapa subsect of the Kargyupa school, to whom is attributed the introduction of strategically built dzong. Although the Lhapa subsect had been successfully challenged in the 12th century by another Kargyupa subsect—the Drukpa —led by Tibetan monk Phajo Drugom Shigpoit continued to proselytize until the 17th century.
The Drukpa spread throughout Bhutan and eventually became a dominant form of religious practice. Between the 12th century and the 17th century, the two Kargyupa subsects vied with one another from their respective dzong as the older form of Nyingmapa Buddhism was eclipsed.
The theocratic government was founded by an expatriate Drukpa monk, Ngawang Namgyalwho arrived in Bhutan in seeking freedom from the domination of the Gelugpa subsect led by the Dalai Lama Ocean Lama in Lhasa. After a series of victories over rival subsect leaders and Tibetan invaders, Ngawang Namgyal took the title Zhabdrung At Whose Feet One Submits, or, in many Western sources, Dharma Rajabecoming the temporal and spiritual leader of Bhutan.
Considered the first great historical figure of Bhutan, he united the leaders of powerful Bhutanese families in a land called Drukyul.
He promulgated a code of law and built a network of impregnable dzong, a system that helped bring local lords under centralized control and strengthened the country against Tibetan invasions.
Many dzong were extant in the late 20th century. They met with Ngawang Namgyal, presented him with firearms, gunpowder and a telescopeand offered him their services in the war against Tibet, but the Zhabdrung declined the offer.
This is a rare report of the Zhabdrung remaining. The invasions were thwarted, and the Drukpa subsect developed a strong presence in western and central Bhutan, leaving Ngawang Namgyal supreme.
In recognition of the power he accrued, goodwill missions were sent to Bhutan from Cooch Behar in the Duars present-day northeastern West BengalNepal to the west, and Ladakh in western Tibet. The ruler of Ladakh even gave a number of villages in his kingdom to Ngawang Namgyal.
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