Gates is almost impossibly full of information about the topic, and his enthusiasm for history makes him an ever-watchable host. We start with the Mitochondrial Eve, from whom we all descend. We all have mitochondrial DNA. We had a long line of daughters.
The introduction of the camel, which preceded Muslims and Islam by several centuries, brought about a gradual change in trade, and for the first time, the extensive gold, ivory trade, and salt resources of the region could be sent north and east to population centers in North Africa, the Middle East and Europe in exchange for manufactured goods.
The Empire grew rich from the trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt.
This trade produced an increasing surplus, allowing for A review of slave kingdoms a documentary of africas history urban centers.
It also encouraged territorial expansion to gain control over the lucrative trade routes. The first written mention of the kingdom comes from Arabic-language sources some time after the conquest of North Africa by Muslims, when geographers began compiling comprehensive accounts of the world known to Islam around The sources for the earlier periods are very strange as to its society, government or culture, though they do describe its location and note its commercial relations.
The major part of the city was called El-Ghaba and was the residence of the king. It was protected by a stone wall and functioned as the royal and spiritual capital of the Empire.
It contained a sacred grove of trees used for Soninke religious rites in which priests lived. The name of the other section of the city is not recorded. It was surrounded by wells with fresh water, where vegetables were grown. It was inhabited almost entirely by Arab Muslims along with twelve mosques, one of which was designated for Friday prayers, and had a full group of scholars, scribes and Islamic jurists.
Because the majority of these Muslims were merchants, this part of the city was probably its primary business district.
Economy Most of our information about the economy of Ghana comes from merchants, and therefore we know more about the commercial aspects of its economy, and less about the way in which the rulers and nobles may have obtained agricultural products through tribute or taxation.
Merchants had to pay a one gold dinar tax on imports of salt, and two on exports of salt.
Imports probably included products such as textiles, ornaments and other materials. Many of the hand-crafted leather goods found in old Morocco may also had their origins in the empire. The main centre of trade was Koumbi Saleh.
The king claimed as his own all nuggets of gold, and allowed other people to have only gold dust. The introduction of the camel played a key role in Soninke success as well, allowing products and goods to be transported much more efficiently across the Sahara.
These factors all helped the empire remain powerful for some time, providing a rich and stable economy that was to last over several centuries.
Politics Much testimony on ancient Ghana depended on how well disposed the king was to foreign travelers, from which the majority of information on the empire comes. Islamic writers often commented on the social-political stability of the empire based on the seemingly just actions and grandeur of the king.
The Arabic sources, the only ones to give us any information are sufficiently vague as to how the country was governed. It is mentioned that the king had officials who surrounded his throne when he gave justice, and these included the sons of the kings of his country.
The earliest descriptions of the Empire are vague as to its maximum extent, Ghana had forced Awdaghast in the desert to accept its rule sometime between and A tradition in historiography maintains that Ghana fell when it was sacked by the Almoravid movement inbut this interpretation has been questioned.
While there is no clear cut account of a sack of Ghana in the contemporary sources, the country certainly did convert to Islam. They extended their domination over the Sudan, pillaged, charged poll tax and other dues, and converted many of them to Islam.
Ghana still retained its functions as a sort of kingdom within the empire, its ruler being the only one allowed to bear the title malik Mali Empire Overview The Mali Empire or Mandingo Empire or Manden Kurufa was a West African empire of the Mandinka from c.
The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa I.
The Mali Empire had many profound cultural influences on West Africa, allowing the spread of its language, laws and customs along the Niger River. It extended over a large area and consisted of numerous vassal kingdoms and provinces.
Economy The Mali Empire flourished because of trade above all else. It contained three immense gold mines within its borders unlike the Ghana Empire, which was only a transit point for gold.
The empire taxed every ounce of gold or salt that entered its borders. There was no standard currency throughout the realm, but several forms were prominent by region.
The Sahelian and Saharan towns of the Mali Empire were organized as both staging posts in the long-distance caravan trade and trading centers for the various West African products. At Taghaza, for example, salt was exchanged; at Takedda, copper.
Ibn Battuta observed the employment of slave labour in both towns. During most of his journey, Ibn Battuta traveled with a convoy that included slaves, most of whom carried goods for trade but would also be traded as slaves.
On the return from Takedda to Morocco, his caravan transported female slaves, suggesting that slavery was a substantial part of the commercial activity of the empire. Gold Gold nuggets were the exclusive property of the mansa, and were illegal to trade within his borders. All gold was immediately handed over to the imperial treasury in return for an equal value of gold dust.
Gold dust had been weighed and bagged for use at least since the reign of the Ghana Empire.The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade began around the mid-fifteenth century when Portuguese interests in Africa moved away from the fabled deposits of gold to a much more readily available commodity -- slaves.
The Economic, Political, and Social Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on Africa Babacar M’Baye This paper is copyrighted and was later published with the following bibliographic reference: Mbaye, Babacar. Growth of African kingdoms ; II. The Atlantic Slave Trade A. Introduction 1.
Portuguese voyagers History of African slave trade 1. Slavery existed in Rome, replaced by serfdom in Middle Ages Chapter 20 Review Sheet; The Earth and Its Peoples- Chapter 19; US History Content. Chapter 41 - The American People Face a New Century.
Africa is considered the birthplace of humankind and knowing its history is essential for understanding the global society that’s grown around it. Here, you’ll discover resources on the continent’s prominent historical figures, complex racial politics, and turbulent military past.
A Short History of the African Slave Trade. Article. A. Dahomey, kingdom in western Africa that flourished in the 18th and 19th centuries in the region that is now southern Benin.
According to tradition, at the beginning of the 17th century three brothers vied for the kingdom of Allada, which, like neighbouring Whydah (now Ouidah), had grown rich on the slave trade. When one of the brothers won control of Allada, the other two fled. Sep 08, · Produced in , there are nine, sixty-minute programs in this documentary series.
The title, The Africans: A Triple Heritage,refers to the focus of this initiativeblog.com programs tells the story of Africans as inhabitants of Africa, and of Africans as those whose heritage and culture stem from Africa.